Registering event handlers and sending events
Zope provides an events system. Various components (e.g the standard add and edit forms) notify any number of event subscribers (also known as event handlers) of a particular event. The subscribers are then executed.
- Event subscribers are executed in arbitrary order
- Events are executed synchronously: The code which notifies of the event will block until all event handlers have returned
Each type of event is described by an interface. The implementation of this interface will typically carry some information about the event, which may be useful to event subscribers.
Some events are known as object events. These have an object attribute, giving access to the (content) object that the event relates to. Object events allow event handlers to be registered for a specific type of object as well as a specific type of event.
Some of the most commonly used event types in Plone are shown below. They are all object events (i.e. they derive from zope.component.interfaces.IObjectEvent).
- zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces.IObjectCreatedEvent, fired by the standard add form just after an object has been created, but before it has been added on the container. Note that it is often easier to write a handler for IObjectAddedEvent (see below), because at this point the object has a proper acquisition context. This makes it possible to look up tools using getToolByName(), for example.
- zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces.IObjectModifiedEvent, fired by the standard edit form when an object has been modified
- zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces.IObjectAddedEvent, fired when an object has been added to its container. The container is available as the newParent attribute, and the name the new item holds in the container is available as newName.
- zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces.IObjectRemovedEvent, fired when an object has been removed from its container. The container is available as the oldParent attribute, and the name the item held in the container is available as oldName.
- zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces.IObjectMovedEvent, fired when an object is added to, removed from, renamed in, or moved between containers. This event is a super-type of IObjectAddedEvent and*IObjectRemovedEvent*, shown above, so an event handler registered for this interface will be invoked for the ‘added’ and ‘removed’ cases as well. When an object is moved or renamed, all of oldParent, newParent, oldName and newName will be set.
- Products.CMFCore.interfaces.IActionSucceededEvent, fired when a workflow event has completed. The workflow attribute holds the workflow instance involved, and the action attribute holds the action (transition) invoked.
Of course, you can create your own event types as well. However, for standard CRUD type operations (create, read, update, delete), it is best to use the standard event types with a custom object type rather than creating an object-specific event type.
Registering an event subscriber¶
Event subscribers can be registered using the subscribe() decorator. This takes at least one argument: the type (interface) of event to subscribe to. For object events, it can take two parameters: the type of object, and the type of event. This allows us to limit an event handler to a particular type of context object.
Here is an example, printing a message every time a CMF content object is added to a folder:
from five import grok from zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces import IObjectAddedEvent from Products.CMFCore.interfaces import IContentish @grok.subscribe(IContentish, IObjectAddedEvent) def printMessage(obj, event): print "Received event for", obj, "added to", event.newParent
Provided the module is grokked, this is all we have to do to register a new event subscriber. Although this example is trivial, there is no limit to what you can do within an event handler.
- The two arguments to the function correspond to the two arguments to the subscribe() decorator. For object events, the first is the object that the event relates to (which will be the same as event.object in most cases). The second is the event instance.
- Obviously, we could use a more specific content type interface if we wanted to be more specific.
- Unlike adapters, you cannot override an event subscriber by using a more specific interface. Each and every applicable event subscriber will be executed when an event is fired.
Creating a custom event type¶
Creating a new type of event is not much more difficult. Here is an example that involves the sample message broadcasting service we saw in the previous sections:
First, we define an object event type. This would typically be in an interfaces.py module:
from zope.component.interfaces import IObjectEvent from zope import schema class IMessageSentEvent(IObjectEvent) message = schema.Object(title=u"Message", schema=IMessage) messageCount = schema.Int(title=u"Number of messages so far")
The event implementation itself is simple too. The object attribute is mandated by the IObjectEvent interface.
from five import grok from zope.component.interfaces import ObjectEvent class MessageSentEvent(ObjectEvent): grok.implements(IMessageSentEvent) def __init__(self, object, message, messageCount): self.object = object self.message = message self.messageCount = messageCount
Here is another implementation of the messaging service, this time broadcasting an event:
from five import grok from zope.annotation.interfaces import IAnnotations from zope.event import notify class BloggingBroadcaster(grok.MultiAdapter): grok.provides(IMessageBroadcaster) grok.adapts(IContent, IBloggingService) COUNTER_KEY = 'example.messaging.counter' def __init__(self, context, service): self.context = context self.service = service def send(self): message = IMessage(self.context) text = message.format() annotations = IAnnotations(self.context, None) messageCount = -1 if annotations is not None: messageCount = annotations.get(COUNTER_KEY, 0) messageCount += 1 annotations[COUNTER_KEY] = messageCount print "This is message number", messageCount notify(MessageSentEvent(self.context, message, messageCount)) print text
- We use the notify() function from the zope.event package to broadcast the event.
- The call to notify() will not return until every event subscriber has been executed.
As before, we could now register an event subscriber for this event. Since it is an object event, we can use the two-argument version of the subscribe decorator as shown above. However, we could also have a more general event handler that executes for any type of object. Here is one that simply logs that a message has been sent:
from five import grok import logging auditLog = logging.getLogger('auditlog') @grok.subscriber(IMessageSentEvent) def log(event): auditLog.info("Message number %s sent for %s" % (event.messageCount, event.object,))