Creating and registering behaviors¶
How to create a basic behavior that provides form fields
The following example is based on the collective.gtags product, which comes with a behavior that adds a tags field to the “Categorization” fieldset, storing the actual tags in the Dublin Core Subject field.
collective.gtags is a standard package, with a configure.zcml, a GenericSetup profile, and a number of modules. We won’t describe those here, though, since we are only interested in the behavior.
First, there are a few dependencies in setup.py:
install_requires=[ ..., 'plone.behavior', 'plone.directives.form', 'zope.schema', 'zope.interface', 'zope.component', 'rwproperty', ],
The dependency on plone.directives.form is there to support form fields. If your behavior does not require form fields, you can skip this dependency. The rwproperty dependency provides some convenience decorators that are used in the behavior adapter factory class.
Next, we have behaviors.zcml, which is included from configure.zcml and contains all necessary configuration to set up the behaviors. It looks like this:
<configure xmlns="http://namespaces.zope.org/zope" xmlns:plone="http://namespaces.plone.org/plone" xmlns:grok="http://namespaces.zope.org/grok" i18n_domain="collective.gtags"> <include package="plone.behavior" file="meta.zcml" /> <include package="plone.directives.form" file="meta.zcml" /> <include package="plone.directives.form" /> <grok:grok package=".behaviors" /> <plone:behavior title="GTags" description="Use the Dublin Core Subject (keywords) field for Google Code like tags." provides=".behaviors.ITags" factory=".behaviors.Tags" /> </configure>
We first include the plone.behavior meta.zcml file, so that we get access to the <plone:behavior /> ZCML directive.
The next three lines include plone.directives.form and its meta.zcml file, and then invoke the grok action on the behaviors module. This is not directly related to the behavior, but rather to the configuration of a schema interface that provides form fields and display hints to plone.autoform (and thus Dexterity’s standard add and edit forms). If your behavior is not a form field provider, you can omit these lines. Similarly, if you have grokked the entire package elsewhere with <grok:grok package=“.” />, you can omit the <grok:grok package=“.behaviors” /> line. Otherwise, adjust it to reflect the module or package where your behaviors are kept.
The behavior itself is registered with the <plone:behavior /> directive. We set a title and a description, and then speicfy the behavior interface with the provides attribute. This attribute is required, and is used to construct the unique name for the behavior. In this case, the behavior name is collective.gtags.behaviors.ITags, the full dotted name to the behavior interface. When the behavior is enabled for a type, it will be possible to adapt instances of that type to ITags. That adaptation will invoke the factory specified by the factory attribute.
The behaviors.py module looks like this:
"""Behaviours to assign tags (to ideas). Includes a form field and a behaviour adapter that stores the data in the standard Subject field. """ from rwproperty import getproperty, setproperty from zope.interface import implements, alsoProvides from zope.component import adapts from plone.directives import form from collective.gtags.field import Tags from Products.CMFCore.interfaces import IDublinCore from collective.gtags import MessageFactory as _ class ITags(form.Schema): """Add tags to content """ form.fieldset( 'categorization', label=_(u'Categorization'), fields=('tags',), ) tags = Tags( title=_(u"Tags"), description=_(u"Applicable tags"), required=False, allow_uncommon=True, ) alsoProvides(ITags, form.IFormFieldProvider) class Tags(object): """Store tags in the Dublin Core metadata Subject field. This makes tags easy to search for. """ implements(ITags) adapts(IDublinCore) def __init__(self, context): self.context = context @getproperty def tags(self): return set(self.context.Subject()) @setproperty def tags(self, value): if value is None: value = () self.context.setSubject(tuple(value))
We first define the ITags interface, which is also the behavior interface. Here, we define a single attribute, tags, but we could also have added methods and additional fields if required. Naturally, these need to be implemented by the behavior adapter.
Since we want this behavior to provide form fields, we derive the behavior interface from form.Schema and set form hints using plone.directives.form*(remember that these will only take effect if the package is *grokked). We also mark the ITags interface with IFormFieldProvider to signal that it should be processed for form fields by the standard forms. See the Dexterity Developer Manual for more information about setting form hints in schema interfaces.
If your behavior does not provide form fields, you can just derive from zope.interface.Interface and omit the alsoProvides() line.
Next, we write the class that implements the behavior adapter and acts the adapter factory. Notice how it implements the behavior interface (ITags), and adapts a broad interface (IDublinCore). The behavior cannot be enabled on types not supporting this interface. In many cases, you will omit the adapts() line, provided your behavior is generic enough to work on any context.
The adapter is otherwise identical to any other adapter. It implements the interface, here by storing values in the Subject field. The use of getproperty and setproperty from the rwproperty package is for convenience only.