Translating text strings


Translating Python and TAL template source code text strings using the term:gettext framework and other Plone/Zope term:i18n facilities.


Internationalization is a process to make your code locale- and language-aware. Usually this means supplying translation files for text strings used in the code.

Plone internally uses the UNIX standard term:gettext tool to perform term:i18n.

There are two separate gettext systems. Both use the .po file format to describe translations.

Note that this chapter concerns only code-level translations. Content translations are managed by the Products.LinguaPlone add-on product.


  • Follows term:gettext best practices
  • Translations are stored in the locales folder of your application. Example: locales/fi/LC_MESSAGES/
  • Has zope.i18nmessageid package, which provides a string-like class which allows storing the translation domain with translatable text strings easily.
  • .po files must usually be manually converted to .mo binary files every time the translations are updated. See i18ndude. (It is also possible to set an environment variable to trigger recompilation of .mo files; see below.)

Plone (at least 3.3) uses only filename and path to search for the translation files. Information in the .po file headers is ignored.

Generating a .pot template file for your package(s)

infrae.i18nextract can be used in your buildout to create a script which searches particular packages for translation strings. This can be particularly useful for creating a single translations package which contains the translations for the set of packages which make up your application.

Add the following to your buildout.cfg:

recipe = infrae.i18nextract
packages =
   myapplication .theme
output = ${buildout:directory}/src/myapplication.translation/myapplication/translation/locales
output-package = myapplication.translations
domain = mypackage

Running the ./bin/translation-extract script will produce a .pot file in the specified output directory which can then be used to create the .po files for each translation:

msginit --locale=fr --input=locales/mypackage.pot --output=locales/fr/LC_MESSAGES/mypackage.po

The locales directory should contain a directory for each language, and a directory called LC_MESSAGES within each of these, followed by the corresponding .po files containing the translation strings:


Marking translatable strings in Python

Each module declares its own MessageFactory which is a callable and marks strings with translation domain. MessageFactory is declared in the main file of your package.

from zope.i18nmessageid import MessageFactory

# must match domain declaration in .po files
MessageFactory = MessageFactory('')

You also need to have the following ZCML entry:

<configure xmlns:i18n="">
    <i18n:registerTranslations directory="locales" />

After the setup above you can use message factory to mark strings with translation domains. i18ndude translation utilities use underscore _ to mark translatable strings (term:gettext message ids). Message ids must be unicode strings.

from import yourAppMessageFactory as _
my_translatable_text = _(u"My text")

The object will still look like a string:

>>> my_translatable_text
u'My text'

But in reality it is a zope.i18nmessageid.message.Message object:

>>> my_translatable_text.__class__
<type 'zope.i18nmessageid.message.Message'>

>>> my_translatable_text.domain

To see the translation:

>>> from zope.i18n import translate
>>> translate(my_translatable_text)
u"The text of the translation." # This is the corresponding msgstr from the .po file

Marking translatable strings in TAL page templates

Declare XML namespace i18n and translation domain at the beginning of your template, at the first element

<div id="mobile-header" xmlns:i18n="" i18n:domain="plomobile">

Translate element content text using i18n:translate="". It will use the text content of the element as msgid.

<li class="heading" i18n:translate="">
  • Use attributes i18n:translate, i18n:attributes and so on

For examples look any core Plone .pt files

Automatically translated message ids

Plone will automatically perform translation for message ids which are output in page templates.

The following code would translate my_translateable_text to the native language activated for the current page.

<span tal:content="view/my_translateable_text">


Since my_translateable_text is a zope.i18nmessageid.message.Message instance containing its own gettext domain information, the i18n:domain attribute in page templates does not affect message ids declared through message factories.

Manually translated message ids

If you need to manipulate translated text outside page templates, you need to perform the final translation manually.

Translation always needs context (i.e. under which site the translation happens), as the active language and other preferences are read from the HTTP request object and site object settings.

Translation can be performed using the context.translate() method:

# Translate some text
msgid = _(u"My text") # my_text is zope.

# Use inherited translate() function to get the final text string
translated = self.context.translate(msgid)

# translated is now u"Käännetty teksti" (in Finnish)

context.translate() uses the Python script from LanguageTool.

It has the signature:

def translate(self, domain, msgid, mapping=None, context=None,
      target_language=None, default=None):

and does the trick:

from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName

# get tool
tool = getToolByName(context, 'translation_service')

# this returns type unicode
value = tool.translate(msgid,


Translation needs HTTP request object and thus may not work correctly from command-line scripts.

Non-python message ids

There are also other message id markers in code outside the Python domain, that have their own mechanisms:

  • ZCML entries
  • GenericSetup XML
  • TAL page templates

Translating browser view names

Often you might want to translate browser view names, so that the "Display" contentmenu shows something more human readable than, for example, "my_awesome_view".

These are the steps needed to get it translated:

  • Use the "plone" domain for your browser view name translations. Wether put the whole ZCML in the plone domain of just the view definitions with i18n:domain="plone".
  • The msgids for the views are their names. Translate them in a plone.po override file in your locales folder.

Please note, i18ndude does not parse the zcml files for translation strings (see below "Translating other ZCML").

Testing translations

Here is a simple way to check if your gettext domains are correctly loaded.

Plone 4

You can start the Plone debug shell and manually check if translations can be performed.

First start Plone in debug shell:

bin/instance debug

and then call translation service, in your site, manually:

>>> site = app.yoursiteid
>>> translation_service = site.translation_service
>>> translation_service.translate("Add Events Portlet", domain="plone", target_language="fi")
u'Lis\xe4\xe4 Tapahtumasovelma'

Plone 3

You can find PlacelessTranslationService in the ZMI root/control panel (not site root).

Translation string substitution

Translation string substitutions must be used when the final translated message contains variable strings.

Plone content classes inherit the translate() function which can be used to get the final translated string. It will use the currently activate language. Translation domain will be taken from the msgid object itself, which is a string-like zope.i18nmessageid instance.

Message ids are immutable (read-only) objects so you need to always create a new message id if you use different variable substitution mappings.

Python code:

from import appMessageFactory as _

class SomeView(BrowserView):

    def do_stuff(self):

        msgid = _(u"search_results_found_msg", default=u"Found ${results} results", mapping={ u"results" : len(self.contents)})

        # Use inherited translate() function to get the final text string
        translated = self.context.translate(msgid)

        # Show the final result count to the user as a portal status message
        messages = IStatusMessage(self.request)
        messages.addStatusMessage(translated, type="info")

Corresponding .po file entry:

#. Default: "Found ${results} results"
#: ./browser/
msgid "search_results_found_msg"
msgstr "Löytyi ${results} majoituskohdetta"

For more information, see


  • Historic, being phased out.
  • Stores .po files in i18n folder of your add-on product.
  • Used for main "plone" translation catalog (until Plone 3.3.x)
  • Translation files are processed when Plone is restarted. Example: i18n/yourapp-fi.po.


i18ndude is a developer-oriented command-line utility to manage .po and .mo files.

Usually you build our own shell script wrapper around i18ndude to automate generation of .mo files of your product .po files.


Plone 3.3 and onwards do not need manual .po -> .mo compilation. It is done on start up. Plone 4 has a special switch for this: in your buildout.cfg in the part using plone.recipe.zope2instance you can set an environment variable for this:

environment-vars =
    zope_i18n_compile_mo_files true

Note that the value does not matter: the code in zope.i18n simply looks for the existence of the variable and does not care what its value is.


If you use i18ndude make sure to use _ as an alias for your MessageFactory else i18ndude won't find your message strings in python code and report that "no entries for domain" were found.



Installing i18ndude

The recommended method is to have term:i18ndude installed via your buildout.

Add the following to your buildout.cfg:

parts =

unzip = true
recipe = zc.recipe.egg
eggs = i18ndude

After this i18ndude is available in your buildout/bin folder

For Plone 3 you might need to add:

# i18ndude pindowns for Plone 3.3
zope.i18nmessageid = 3.6.1
zope.interface = 3.8.0
bin/i18ndude -h
Usage: i18ndude command [options] [path | file1 file2 ...]]

You can also call it relative to your current package source folder

server:home moo$  cd src/mfabrik.plonezohointegration/
server:mfabrik.plonezohointegration moo$ ../../bin/i18ndude


Do not easy_install i18ndude. i18ndude depends on various Zope packages and pulling them to your system-wide Python configuration could be dangerous, due to potential conflicts with corresponding, but different versions, of the same packages used with Plone.

More information

Setting up folder structure for Finnish and English


mkdir locales
mkdir locales/fi
mkdir locales/en
mkdir locales/fi/LC_MESSAGES
mkdir locales/en/LC_MESSAGES

Creating .pot base file


i18ndude rebuild-pot --pot locales/mydomain.pot --create .

Manual .po entries

i18ndude scans source .py and .pt files for translatable text strings. On some occasions this is not enough - for example if you dynamically generate message ids in your code. Entries which cannot be detected by automatic code scan are called manual po entries. They are managed in locales/manual.pot which is merged to generated locales/ file.

Here is a sample manual.pot file:

msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: PACKAGE VERSION\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
"Plural-Forms: nplurals=1; plural=0\n"
"Preferred-Encodings: utf-8 latin1\n"

# This entry is used in gomobiletheme.mfabrik  templates for the campaign page header
# It is not automatically picked, since it is referred from external package
#. Default: "Watch video"
msgid "watch_video"
msgstr ""

Managing .po files

Example shell script to manage i18n files. Change CATALOGNAME to reflect the actual package of your product:

The script will:

  • pick up all changes to i18n strings in code and reflect them back to the translation catalog of each language;
  • pick up changes in manual.pot file and reflect them back to the translation catalog of each language.
# Shell script to manage .po files.
# Run this file in the folder main of product
# E.g. if your product is
# you run this file in
# Copyright 2010 mFabrik

# Assume the product name is the current folder name

# List of languages
LANGUAGES="en fi de"

# Create locales folder structure for languages
install -d locales
for lang in $LANGUAGES; do
    install -d locales/$lang/LC_MESSAGES

# Assume i18ndude is installed with buildout
# and this script is run under src/ folder with two nested namespaces in the package name (like mfabrik.plonezohointegration)

if test ! -e $I18NDUDE; then
        echo "You must install i18ndude with buildout"
        echo "See"

# Do we need to merge manual PO entries from a file called manual.pot.
# this option is later passed to i18ndude
if test -e locales/manual.pot; then
        echo "Manual PO entries detected"
        MERGE="--merge locales/manual.pot"
        echo "No manual PO entries detected"

# Rebuild .pot
$I18NDUDE rebuild-pot --pot locales/$CATALOGNAME.pot $MERGE --create $CATALOGNAME .

# Compile po files
for lang in $(find locales -mindepth 1 -maxdepth 1 -type d); do

    if test -d $lang/LC_MESSAGES; then


        # Create po file if not exists
        touch $PO

        # Sync po file
        echo "Syncing $PO"
        $I18NDUDE sync --pot locales/$CATALOGNAME.pot $PO

        # Plone 3.3 and onwards do not need manual .po -> .mo compilation,
        # but it will happen on start up if you have
        # registered the locales directory in ZCML
        # For more info see

        # Compile .po to .mo
        # MO=$lang/LC_MESSAGES/${CATALOGNAME}.mo
        # echo "Compiling $MO"
        # msgfmt -o $MO $lang/LC_MESSAGES/${CATALOGNAME}.po


Remember to register the locales directory in configure.zcml for automatic .mo compilation as instructed above.

More information

Distributing compiled translations

The rule for compiled .mo files is that

  • Source code repositories (SVN, Git) must not contain compiled .mo files
  • Released eggs on PyPi, however, must contain compiled .mo files

The easiest way to manage this is to use zest.releaser tool together with zest.pocompile package to release your eggs.

Dynamic content

If your HTML template contains dynamic content such as

<h1 i18n:translate="search_form_heading">Search from <span tal:content="context/@@plone_portal_state/portal_title" /></h1>

it will produce .po entry:

msgstr "Hae sivustolta <span>${DYNAMIC_CONTENT}</span>"

You need to give the name to the dynamic part

<h1 i18n:translate="search_form_heading">
Search from
<span i18n:name="site_title"
      tal:content="context/@@plone_portal_state/portal_title" /></h1>

... and then you can refer the dynamic part by a name:

#. Default: "Search from <span>${site_title}</span>"
#: ./skins/gomobiletheme_basic/
#: ./skins/gomobiletheme_plone3/
msgid "search_form_heading"
msgstr "Hae sivustolta ${site_title}

More info

Overriding translations

If you need to change a translation from a .po file, you could create a new python package and register your own .po files.

To do this, create the package and add a locales directory in there, along the lines of what does. Then you can add your own translations in the language that you need; for example locales/fr/LC_MESSAGES/plone.po to override French messages in the plone domain.

Reference the translation in configure.zcml of your package:

<configure xmlns:i18n=""
    <i18n:registerTranslations directory="locales" />

Your ZCML needs to be included before the one from the first translation of a msgid wins. To manage this, you can include the ZCML in the buildout:

recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
user = admin:admin
http-address = 8280
eggs =
environment-vars =
    zope_i18n_compile_mo_files true
# my.package is needed here so its configure.zcml
# is loaded before
zcml = my.package

See the Overriding Translations section of Maurits van Rees's blog entry on Plone i18n, and Vincent Fretin's posting on the Plone-Users mailing list.